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PENGARUH IMPOR BAHAN BAKU DAN KOMPLEKSITAS PRODUK TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS PERUSAHAAN

Sirma Oktaviani (Universitas Indonesia)(1*), Sartika Djamaluddin (Universitas Indonesia)(2),


(1) University of Indonesia
(2) University of Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRACT

The effect of import liberalization on industrial productivity can occur through increased access to inputs and technology transfer to imported products. Another factor that can affect productivity is product complexity. The calculation results of the 2010-2014 Product Complexity Index (PCI) based on the concept of diversity and ubiquity, showed the average 3-digit PCI ISIC was 0.0946 with a minimum value of -2.1324 and a maximum of 2.2157. This study aims to look at the effect of imported raw materials on the productivity of companies that produce more complex products. By using the 2010-2014 Large and Medium Industry Survey data and involving the firm's fixed effects and time, empirical results show that imports of raw materials significantly affect the productivity of companies that produce complex products by -0.0405. In addition, it is known that the manufacturing industry takes approximately one year to absorb technology in complex products so as to increase firm productivity. Firm-level productivity is calculated based on the Levinshon-Petrin (2003) estimated productivity to control selection and simultaneity bias.

ABSTRAK 

Efek liberalisasi impor terhadap produktivitas industri dapat terjadi melalui peningkatan akses input serta transfer teknologi pada produk impor. Faktor lainnya yang dapat mempengaruhi produktivitas adalah kompleksitas produk.  Hasil perhitungan Product Complexity Index (PCI) 2010-2014 berdasarkan konsep keragaman dan ubiquity, menunjukkan rata-rata PCI ISIC 3 digit adalah 0.0946 dengan nilai minimum -2.1324 dan maksimum 2.2157. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh impor bahan baku terhadap produktivitas perusahaan yang lebih banyak menghasilkan produk kompleks. Dengan menggunakan data Survei Industri Besar dan Sedang tahun 2010-2014  serta melibatkan efek tetap perusahaan dan waktu, hasil empiris menunjukkan impor bahan baku mempengaruhi produktivitas perusahaan yang menghasilkan produk kompleks secara signifikan sebesar -0.0405. Selain itu, diketahui bahwa industri manufaktur memerlukan waktu kira-kira satu tahun untuk menyerap teknologi pada produk kompleks sehingga dapat meningkatkan produktivitas perusahaan. Produktivitas level perusahaan dihitung berdasarkan estimasi produktivitas Levinshon-Petrin untuk mengendalikan bias seleksi dan simultanitas.

 


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30988/jmil.v4i1.284

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