Niken Wulandari(1*), Andi Fahmi Lubis(2),

(1) Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta
(2) Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Abstract : Regardless the benefits of imported inputs, uncertainties in foreign markets and highly sunk inisial costs (e.g. cost of searching foreign suppliers), become a barrier to entry for most of firm and causing persistent to use the imported input. However, the sunk cost entry give the information insentives about import activities for the importer. So, when importers are neighboring in a location, they pottentially induce knowledge spillovers to the other firms. The more importers at that location, the more knowledge is spread, so that it can potentially reduce initial import costs and increase the prospensity to import for other neighbors. This study uses dynamic panel data of Indonesian manufacturing firms from 2007 until 2015, to examine the determinant of decision to import, especially sunk cost and spillovers. The results of the GMM difference estimation indicate that firm who imported last year and two years earlier more likely to import input this year, both for domestic and foreign firms. This study also found a positive correlation between probability of importing input and the number of importer in the same region regardless of their industrial affiliation. However, this finding is limited only to indegenous firm which generated by agglomeration of indegenous importers.

Keywords: decision to import, sunk cost of import entry,  spillover, dynamic panel data

Abstrak : Terlepas dari manfaat imported input, ketidakpastian di pasar luar negeri dan biaya inisial yang tinggi dan sunk mencegah sebagian besar perusahaan untuk mengimpor dan menyebabkan perusahaan persisten mengimpor bahan baku.  Namun, sunk cost entry tersebut sarat akan informasi terkait aktivitas impor, sehingga berpotensi menimbulkan knowledge spillover ketika importir berdekatan di satu lokasi tertentu. Semakin banyak importir di lokasi tersebut, semakin banyak informasi yang tersebar, sehingga dapat mengurangi biaya inisial impor dan meningkatkan kecenderungan untuk mengimpor bagi perusahaan lain. Penelitian ini mengunakan data panel dinamis perusahaan manufaktur di Indonesia (2007 - 2015) untuk mempelajari determinan keputusan impor bahan baku, terutama sunk cost entry dan import spillover. Hasil estimasi GMM difference menunjukkan perusahaan yang mengimpor satu dan dua tahun sebelumnya cenderung akan mengimpor bahan baku tahun ini, baik bagi perusahaan domestik maupun asing. Penelitian ini juga menemukan adanya hubungan positif antara keputusan impor dengan jumlah importir yang berada di satu kabupaten baik di industri yang sama maupun berbeda. Namun, temuan tersebut terbatas hanya terjadi bagi perusahaan domestik yang berasal dari aglomerasi importir domestik.

Kata kunci: keputusan untuk impor, sunk cost import entry, spillover, data panel dinamis


decision to import, sunk cost of import entry, spillover, dynamic panel data

Full Text:



W. Keller, “International Technology Diffusion,” Journal of Economic Literature, pp. 752-782, 2004.

G. Grossman dan E. Helpman, Innovation and Growth in the World Economy, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991.

D. Coe dan E. Helpman, “International R&D Spillovers,” Europian Economic Review, p. 1995, 859-887.

H. Kasahara dan J. Rodrigue, “Does the use of imported intermediates increase productivity? Plant–level evidence,” Journal Development Economics, vol. 87 (1), p. 106–118, 2008.

L. Halpern, M. Koren dan A. Szeidl, “Imported Inputs and Productivity,” The American Economic Review, pp. 3660-3703 , 2015.

M. Amiti dan J. Konings, “Trade liberalization, intermediate inputs, and productivity: evidence from Indonesia,” American Economic Review 97, vol. 97, p. 1611–1638, 2007.

G. Blalock dan F. M. Veloso, “Imports, Productivity Growth, and Supply Chain Learning,” World Development, pp. 1134-1151, 2007.

H. Zhang, “ Static and dynamic gains from costly importing of intermediate inputs: Evidence from Colombia,” Europian Economic Review, vol. 91(C), pp. 118-145, 2017.

G. M. Grossman dan E. Helpman, “Integration versus Outsourcing in Industry Equilibrium,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp. 85-102, 2002.

M. Andersson, H. Lööf dan S. Johansson, “Productivity and international trade: firm level evidence from a small open economy,” Review World Economic, vol. 144, p. 774–801, 2008.

A. Vogel dan J. Wagner, “Higher productivity in importing German manufacturing firms: self-selection, learning from importing, or both?,” Review World Economic, pp. 641-665, 2010.

H. Kasahara dan B. Lapham, “Productivity and the decision to import and export: Theory and evidence,” Journal of International Economics, pp. 297- 316, 2013.

M. Bisztray, M. Koren dan A. Szeidl, “Learning to import from your peers,” Journal of International Economics, pp. 242-258, 2018.

A. B. Jaffe, M. Trajtenberg dan R. Henderson, “Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations,” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp. 577-598, 1993.

R. Balwin, “Hysteresis in trade,” NBER Summer Institute, 1986.

M. Roberts dan J. Tybout, “An empirical model of sunk costs and the decision to export,” American Economic Review , vol. 87(4), p. 545–564, 1997.

A. Bernard dan J. Jensen, “Why some firms export. Review of Economics and Statistics,” vol. 86(2), p. 561–569, 2004.

F. Sjöholm dan S. Takii, “ Foreign Networks and Exports : Result From Indonesian Panel Data.,” The Developing Economies, pp. 428-446, 2008.

D. L. Swenson, “Entry costs and outsourcing decisions: evidence from the U.S. overseas assembly provision,” The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 267-286, 2004.

L. Jabbour, “Market thickness, sunk costs, productivity, and the outsourcing decision: manufacturing firms in France,” The Canadian Journal of Economics, pp. 103-134, 2013.

R. A. López dan N. Yadav, “Imports of Intermediate Inputs and Spillover Effects: Evidence from Chilean Plants,” Journal of Development Studies, vol. 46, p. 1385–403, 2010.

B. Aitken, G. H. Hanson dan A. E. Harrison, “Spillovers, foreign investment, and export behavior,” Journal of International Economics , vol. 43, p. 103–132, 199.

S. Barrios, H. Görg dan E. Strobl, “Explaining Firms’ Export Behaviour: R&D, Spillovers and the Destination Market,” OXFORD BULLETIN OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS, vol. 65, pp. 475-496, 2003.

P. Koenig, “Agglomeration and the export decision of French Firms,” Journal of Urban Economics, pp. 186-195, 2009.

Rodríguez-Pose, V. Tselios, D. Winkler dan T. Farole, “ Geography and the determinants of firm exports in Indonesia,” World Development , vol. 44, pp. 225-240, 2013.

B. Ito, Z. Xu dan N. Yashiro, “Does agglomeration promote internationalization of Chinese firms?,” China Economic Review, vol. 34, pp. 109-121, 2015.

C. Hu dan Y. Tan, “Export Spillovers and Export Performance in China,” China Economic Review, pp. 75-89, 2016.

P. Krugman, “ Increasing Returns and Economic Geography,” Journal of Political Economy, vol. 99/3, pp. 483-499, 1994.

B. Garrick dan Gertler, “Welfare gains from Foreign Direct Investment through technology transfer to local suppliers,” Journal of International Economics, pp. 402-421, 2008.

D. Prud'hommea, M. von Zedtwitz, J. J. Thraen dan M. Badere, “Forced technology transfer” policies: Workings in China and strategic implications,” Technological Forecasting & Social Change, pp. 150-168, 2018.

M. Arellano dan S. Bond, “Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,” The Review of Economic Studies, pp. 277-297, 1991.

D. Roodman, “How to do xtabond2: An introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata,” Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, Vol. %1 dari %2 9(1),, pp. 86-136, 2009.


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 46 times
PDF (INDONESIA) - 23 times


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Niken Wulandari

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Manajemen Industri dan Logistik is abstracting & indexing in the following databases: 

  DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journal)           DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journal)


View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN 2622-528X (Print) and ISSN 2598-5795 (Online)


Unit Penelitian dan Pengabdian Masyarakat (UPPM)
Politeknik APP Jakarta
Kementerian Perindustrian
M. Tirtana Siregar
Managing Editor Jurnal Manajemen Industri dan Logistik
Telp. : 021-7867382/83
HP/WA : 082125910310
email :