PENGARUH AGLOMERASI DAN HUBUNGAN VERTIKAL INDUSTRI TERHADAP PRODUKTIVITAS INDUSTRI DI INDONESIA

Betty Yarsita Agustina(1*), Andi Fahmi Lubis(2),


(1) Universitas Indonesia
(2) Universitas Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract : The research objectives is to analyze agglomeration over the company’s productivity of 2 important factors of agglomeration: interindustry (localization) and cross industry spillover (urbanization) and review its effect if those agglomeration derives from upstream or downstream industry. In addition to it, this research is determining on how geographic distance and economic distance against spillover strength. By means of the company‘s level panel data of heavy and medium industrial survey result by the National Statistical Bureau in local regency/municipality level ranging from 2008 to 2015 and 2010 output input table to see the vertical industry relation, the outcomes may show that both company accepting positive and significant impact on productivity spillover of the same industrial sector, and other industrial sector in the same region. Nevertheless, the more far the area geographically, the less its impact. Productivity spillover is also determined from upstream dan downstream industries concentrating in the same region. However, the economic distance effect is not identified on the upstream level. Hence, the policy implication of the research result is to encourage and shaping the downstream industries, facilitate technology transfer from upstream companies, and periodically evaluate industrial estates.

Keywords: agglomeration, downstream, productivity, spillover, upstream.


Abstrak : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh aglomerasi terhadap produktivitas perusahaan dari dua faktor penting aglomerasi, yaitu intraindustry (lokalisasi) dan crossindustry spillover (urbanisasi) dan mengkaji bagaimana pengaruhnya jika aglomerasi tersebut berasal dari industri upstream atau downstream dari perusahaan tersebut. Selain itu penelitian ini juga ingin membuktikan pengaruh jarak geografis dan jarak ekonomi terhadap kekuatan spillover. Dengan menggunakan data panel level perusahaan dari hasil survei industri besar dan sedang BPS untuk tingkat kabupaten kota dengan rentang waktu tahun 2008-2015 dan Tabel input output 2010 untuk melihat hubungan vertikal industri, diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa perusahaan menerima dampak spillover produktivitas yang positif dan signifikan dari berkumpulnya perusahaan dari sektor industri yang sama, maupun dari sektor industri lain yang berada di wilayah yang sama. Namun makin jauh jarak geografisnya, pengaruh tersebut semakin kecil. Spillover produktivitas juga diperoleh dari perusahaan sektor upstream dan downstream yang berkumpul diwilayah yang sama dengan perusahaan tersebut. Makin dekat jarak ekonominya makin besar pengaruh spillover dari sektor downstream. Pengaruh jarak ekonomi ini tidak ditemukan pada sektor upstream. Dengan demikian implikasi kebijakan dari hasil penelitian yaitu mendorong terciptanya hilirisasi industri, memfalitasi transfer teknologi dari perusahaan upstream, dan melakukan evaluasi kawasan industri secara berkala.

Kata kunci: aglomerasi, downstream, produktivitas, spillover, upstream.



Keywords


agglomeration, downstream, productivity, spillover, upstream

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30988/jmil.v3i1.71

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