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KONSENTRASI SPASIAL, AGLOMERASI DAN PRODUKTIVITAS PERUSAHAAN INDUSTRI MANUFAKTUR INDONESIA

Kusuma Wardani (Universitas Indonesia)(1*), Muhammad Halley Yudhistira (Universitas Indonesia)(2),


(1) Universitas Indonesia
(2) Universitas Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Abstract

This study aims to analyze the impact of agglomeration in the form of localization economies and urbanization economies on the productivity of manufacturing industrial companies in Indonesia. Unlike previous studies, this study will look at the effect of technology level on the relationship between productivity and agglomeration by classifying research samples into low-tech and high-tech industries. In addition, this study also improves the estimation technique by addressing the endogeneity problem that has the potential to arise in estimating the relationship between productivity and agglomeration to be overcome by using instrument variable (IV). The study was conducted in two stages of estimation using company-level panel data from 2010 to 2014. First, productivity was measured at the company level using Total Factor Productivity (TFP). Then, the company productivity is estimated together with the company and industry characteristic variables, including the agglomeration measurement variable which represents localization economies and urbanization economies. The regression results show a positive impact from localization economies and a negative impact from urbanization economies.

Abstrak

Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis dampak aglomerasi berupa localization economies dan urbanization economies terhadap produktivitas perusahaan industri manufaktur di Indonesia. Berbeda dengan penelitian terdahulu yang juga meneliti dampak aglomerasi industri terhadap produktivitas perusahaan, pada penelitian ini akan melihat pengaruh tingkat teknologi terhadap hubungan produktivitas dan aglomerasi dengan mengklasifikasikan sampel penelitian ke dalam industri berteknologi rendah dan industri berteknologi tinggi. Selain itu, peneltian ini juga memperbaiki teknik estimasi dari penelitian sebelumnya dengan menangani masalah endogenitas yang berpotensi muncul dalam mengestimasi hubungan produktivitas dan aglomerasi akan diatasi dengan penggunaan instrument variable (IV). Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahap estimasi dengan menggunakan data panel level perusahaan dari tahun 2010 sampai 2014. Pertama, produktivitas diukur pada level perusahaan dengan menggunakan Total Factor Productivity (TFP). Kemudian, produktivitas perusahaan diestimasi bersama variabel karakteristik perusahaan dan industri, termasuk variabel pengukuran aglomerasi yang mewakili localization economies dan urbanization economies. Hasil regresi menunjukkan adanya dampak positif dari localization economies dan dampak negatif dari urbanization economies.


Keywords


Agglomeration; Total Factor Productivity

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.30988/jmil.v4i2.544

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